Proteomics is a branch of biotechnology that deals with the techniques of molecular biology, biochemistry, and genetics to analyze the structure, function, and interactions of the proteins produced by the genes of a particular cell, tissue, or organism date, algorithms for image analysis of 2D gels have been developed. In case of mass spectroscopy, data analysis algorithms for peptide mass fingerprinting and peptide fragmentation fingerprinting have been developed. It is the large-scale study of proteins, particularly their structures and functions. Proteins are vital parts of living organisms, as they are the main components of the physiological metabolic pathways of cells.
Structural Proteomics:- Structural proteomics includes the analysis of protein structures at large-scale. It compares protein structures and helps identify functions of newly discovered genes. The structural analysis also helps to understand that where drugs bind to proteins and also show where proteins interact with each other. This understanding is achieved using different technologies such as X-ray crystallography and NMR spectroscopy.
Expression Proteomics:- Expression proteomics includes the analysis of protein expression at larger scale. It helps identify main proteins in a particular sample, and those proteins differentially expressed in related samples such as diseased vs. healthy tissue. If a protein is found only in a diseased sample then it can be a useful drug target or diagnostic marker. Proteins with same or similar expression profiles may also be functionally related. There are technologies such as 2D-PAGE and mass spectrometry that are used in expression proteomics.
Interaction Proteomics:- Interaction proteomics is the analysis of protein interactions at larger scale. The characterization of protein-protein interactions are useful to determine the protein functions and it also explains the way proteins assemble in bigger complexes. Technologies such as affinity purification, mass spectrometry, and the yeast two-hybrid system are particularly useful in interaction proteomics.